In order to survive in extreme situations, you need to be able to navigate the terrain in the absence of a compass. It is quite difficult for an untrained person to do this. In order to at least roughly imagine where to go, you need to have theoretical knowledge of orientation on the ground and be able to determine the cardinal points by the sun, stars, moon, clock and various signs.
Determine north from your wristwatch with arrows. Place the watch on a horizontal plane with the hour hand pointing towards the sun. If you plot the bisector between the hour hand (i.e. the direction towards the sun) and the direction at 12 o'clock, then determine the direction to the south. Accordingly, north will be in the opposite direction. Remember that the south until 12 o'clock will be on the right side of the Sun, and after 12 o'clock - on the left. Use this method for orientation on the terrain from 6 am to 6 pm.
You can determine the north by knowing what time the sun is in the sky. Remember that in winter the Sun is in the southeast at 10 o'clock, southwest at 16 o'clock, and northwest at 22 o'clock. In summer, the Sun rises at 7 am in the east, at 1 pm in the south, and at 7 pm in the west. Based on this information, calculate where north is.
Determine north from the shadow. To do this, stick a stick about 1 meter high vertically into the ground and mark where the shadow it casts ends. In half an hour, the Sun will move, respectively, and the shadow from the stick will also move. Mark the new location where the shadow will end. Connect the marks. The resulting line, directed towards the last mark, will point to the east. Knowing where the east is, determine the north.
Use the natural features of the sides of the horizon to define the north in the forest. Remember that anthills are flatter on the south side and adjoin a stone or tree also on the south side. The berries will ripen the fastest from the south side, and the resin on the conifers protrudes from the north. Lichens and mosses will grow on the north side of the rocks. Keep in mind that in wet weather there is a dark stripe on the trunks of pines from the north. Remember that in spring the holes around the trees are stretched to the south, because on the south side, the snow melts faster.