Russian cities are connected by air, rail and bus with many countries of the world. Private minibuses and taxis can run between the border cities of neighboring states, for example, the Russian Belgorod and the Ukrainian Kharkov. Water communication along the sea and border rivers is insignificant, but it is present.
The widest network of routes connects Moscow and St. Petersburg with foreign cities. Ground transport (buses, electric trains, passing long-distance trains) usually connects cities located close to each other on opposite sides of the border.
Within the former USSR, rail and bus interstate communication is highly developed. Russia is mainly connected with the rest of the world by airplanes, but there are also direct trains and direct carriages, including countries that do not border on it. For example, to France, Belgium, Germany, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia.
A number of European countries are connected with the Russian Federation by buses, mainly from Eurolines, Ecolines and others.
Rail and bus services also connect Russia with Asian countries. With many countries of the world, especially on other continents, there are only planes, often only flights with transfers are possible.
There are few options for getting to Russia by water. River communication is available only on the Amur, along which in some places the border with China passes. But it is carried out all year round: in navigation - by ordinary ships, and in winter, hovercraft cruise on the ice.
Maritime traffic is present in the Baltic and Black Seas. A direct ferry can reach St. Petersburg from Helsinki and Stockholm, and the Black Sea resort of Sochi is connected by high-speed boats with Turkish Trabzon. They do not have a clear timetable, but they run almost every day.
From time to time, a "Comet" is appointed between Sochi and Batumi, but due to the difficult relations between Russia and Georgia, it, as well as direct flights with Georgian airports, is often canceled. An alternative then remains a transfer in Trabzon, connected with Georgia by land transport (buses, minibuses).
If you require a visa, you will have to take care of obtaining it before traveling. Otherwise, a valid passport is sufficient. Citizens of the CIS are not required to have a passport: they will also be allowed in with an internal passport.
From the countries of the former USSR, Russia has a visa regime with Georgia, Turkmenistan and the Baltic countries (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia), now part of the European Union and the Schengen zone.
Migration and customs control is not carried out on the border between Russia and Belarus.
When entering Russia, all foreigners must fill out migration cards. It is better to take this document in advance from the conductor, the driver of the bus, minibus or taxi, the flight attendant on the plane and fill it out right away. Personal and passport data, information about minor children, if they travel with their parents, the address of stay in Russia and information about the transport that crosses the border in the direction there and back, are entered there. If you do not know where to stop and how you will go back, feel free to leave these fields blank. In the column about the vehicle, the number of the train, flight, state is written. car or bus number.
The completed card is torn in two along the cut line. One part remains with the border guard, the second, certified by his seal with you.
A migration card is the main confirmation of the legality of your stay in the country. She will be asked when checking into a hotel, checking documents by the police, registering for migration (in the hotel, these formalities will be taken over, in other cases the owner of the accommodation provided to you must register you with the FMS or by mail). At the exit, you must hand over your part of the card to the border guard. If it is missing or expired, problems are guaranteed.
With a visa-free entry, you can stay in Russia for up to 90 days.