Seven Wonders of the World - a list of the most ancient, famous and rather pretentious architectural monuments. There were much more structures worthy of this title in ancient times, but the number 7 was chosen to describe miracles, which was considered a sacred symbol of completeness, completeness and perfection. Therefore, the most ambitious monuments were included in the list, and some genuine masterpieces of ancient architecture and art did not become miracles.
Pyramids - the most famous "miracle"
Many people mistakenly believe that all pyramids belong to the wonders of the world, in fact, this is not so. Only the Cheops pyramid is considered "wonderful". This pyramid was at one time the largest building in the world, it bore this title for more than 3000 years, before the construction of the Cathedral in Lincoln, Great Britain. The pyramid is part of the complex of Gizekh buildings, which are the largest and most numerous pyramids in Egypt. The height of the Cheops pyramid is 138 meters, its construction, according to rough estimates, took about 20 years, the Egyptian name for the pyramid sounds like: "Akhet-Khufu" - "Horizon Khufu".
The first list of wonders of the world is attributed to Herodotus. The list appeared in Ancient Greece in the 5th century BC. e.. Miracles were on the island of Samos. That list consisted of 3 wonders: Aqueduct in the form of a tunnel, Dam in the port on the island, Temple of the goddess Hera.
Temple of Artemis of Ephesus
Temple, built in honor of the ancient Greek goddess of the hunt, Artemis, in the city of Ephesus on the coast of Asia Minor. Now this city is called Selcuk and it is located in Turkey. The impressive building, the roof of which rested on 127 columns, at one time inspired respect and admiration for the inhabitants of the city of Ephesus. The temple did not belong to the city authorities, but was in fact a separate independent quarter, which was governed by a council of priests. Over the centuries, this grandiose architectural structure was constantly being destroyed and plundered, and after the prohibition of paganism it was completely closed, now only ruins and one column remain of the temple.
The lighthouse was built on the small Mediterranean island of Pharos, off the coast of Alexandria. This structure is considered the first building in the history of mankind to function as a lighthouse. The lighthouse was destroyed by an earthquake, subsequently a fortress was built in its place by the crusaders, which still stands there today.
The first mention of the Seven Wonders in Russia is found in Simeon of Polotsk, who is familiar with their description from some Byzantine source.
The Colossus of Rhodes
A giant bronze-iron statue of the ancient Greek sun god Helios, which stood in the port of Rhodes on the island in the Aegean Sea, which bears the same name. At one time, this statue was the largest all-metal monument of the ancient world, like the Eiffel Tower is now. The statue had a height of 36 meters, it took about 13 tons of bronze and 8 tons of iron to create it, and was destroyed by an earthquake.
Statue of Olympian Zeus
A huge statue of Zeus in the same huge temple, the only "miracle" located in Europe, is on the 2nd place in the list of miracles. The body of Zeus was made of wood covered with ivory, the cape and scepter were made of gold, the height of the statue, according to various sources, ranged from 13 to 17 meters. With the prohibition of paganism, the temple of Zeus was closed, the statue was dismantled and taken to Constantinople, where it burned down in a fire. The creator of the statue is the famous sculptor of that time Phidias of Athens, this fact is known for certain and is not questioned.
Hanging Gardens of Babylon
An architectural structure built by order of the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II for his wife Amitis. It was not possible to establish the exact location of this architectural monument. At its core, this "miracle" was a huge flower bed, a pyramidal structure, equipped with a perfect irrigation system, allowing the gardens to bloom in the middle of a barren desert. The structure was washed away by the flood, leaving only the terraces intact.
The tombstone of the Carian king named Mavsol, due to which it was named the mausoleum. It is considered the first mausoleum and structure in the history of mankind, from the name of which the term mausoleum originated. It was partially destroyed by an earthquake, what was left was dismantled into bricks by the crusaders in the 16th century. The ruins of this architectural monument, included in the list of wonders of the world, are located in the Turkish resort of Bodrum.